Genetics is the scientific study of inherited variation. Human genetics, then, is the scientific study of inherited human variation.
The study of human inheritance occupies a central role in genetics. Most of this curiosity stems from a deep desire to learn who human beings are, and why they are as they are. At a more realistic level, an understanding of human heredity is crucial in predicting, diagnosing, and treating diseases that have a genetic component. Genetics can help healthcare professionals classify such disorders in babies before they are born using genetic testing methods.
What is human genetics?
Human genetics is a branch of biology that studies how human traits are determined and passed down among generations.
Genetics is known as the science concerned with the study of genes, which is the basic unit that transmits the genetic characteristics from parents to children, and the study of the DNA that genes are made of, and its effect on the reactions that occur in the living cell, and genetics is also concerned with the study of the role of factors Environmentalism in the emergence of genetics.
Basic information about human genetics:
Human beings and all living things have DNA, which contains inherited knowledge. The information in your DNA provides instructions for the production of proteins in your cells. Proteins drive important functions in the body, such as digesting food, building cells and moving muscles.
The most special and distinguishing feature about you is your DNA — it helps to decide what color your eyes are, how tall you are, and how likely you are to have other health issues. Even now, more than 99 per cent of all people’s DNA sequences are the same. It’s the one percent remaining that explains much of what makes you, you!
DNA is arranged in a system called double helix, like two intertwined ropes . Every DNA strand consists of four types of molecules attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone, also called bases. The bases consist of adenine (A), guanine (G ) , cytosine (C ) , and thymine (T). The bases pair the two strands of the helix in a specific way: adenine pairs with thymine; and cytosine pairs with guanine.
Diversity and Human Variation
More than 99 per cent of all DNA sequences of all individuals are similar. The low, different percentage helps make every person special. Such minor variations clarify why there are some people with blue eyes and some with brown eyes. We clarify that some people are colour blind while others can differentiate between turquoise and cerulean.
Inheritance, Health, and Disease
Genetic disorders, called variations or mutations, are caused by spontaneous changes in our DNA. When a variant occurs it may alter the functioning of a gene or the protein it codes for. This shift can cause body damage which can cause a disease. Such improvements can be passed on in various ways to the next generation.
Your family history includes important details about your background and hints for your safety in the future. Many of the physical features are inherited, such as eye colour , hair color and height. So, for certain genetic conditions and health problems , such as heart disease , diabetes, and some cancers, there are also risks. You may have noticed that some of your family members are healthier, and live longer than others. You may also have found that other friends have the same health issues. By gathering the health history of your family, you can learn what health problems you may face in the future, and how to reduce your risks. Individuals at higher risk for heart disease, for example, may be able to minimize their risk by not smoking, physical exercise, and dieting. Knowing the past of your family will help you and your relatives and it can be pleasant too!
Genetic Testing, and Healthcare
In the medical setting, your doctor will first determine if you would be a good candidate for genetic testing. People who have relatives with a genetic disease are often directed to genetic testing. There is also a counseling component, which explores what you plan to do with the results and how the results might affect you and your health.
Medical genetics is any application of the principles of genetics to medical practice. This includes inheritance studies, mapping genes for the disease, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic counseling.
It is worth to know that:
- There are thought to be about 3 billion base pairs in the human genome.
- Only about 3% of the DNA actually codes for genes; the rest is often called “non-coding DNA” because its function is unknown.
- A genome is the total compliment of genes for an organism.
- There are approximately 23,000 genes in the human genome.
- Genetics were developed thanks to, the scientist Gregor Mendel, who discovered the laws governing the transmission of genetics from one generation to another in the mid-nineteenth century, without knowing anything about the physical or chemical nature of genes; it has been called at that early stage, the name “units” or factors. Genetics was introduced in 1905 by the English biologist William Bateson, the main promoter of Mendel’s ideas and experiences.