Seven wonders of the world
Seven Wonders of the World Modern, Ancient & Nature
First, the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World:
It consists of seven ancient and amazing archaeological buildings, not all of them remain until now, and the demise of those wonders is due to wars or natural disasters Such as earthquakes and weather factors, which are:
Pyramid of Khufu:
It is considered the only remaining wonder, a relic of the Seven Wonders of the World, and it is located in Giza. This great architectural edifice was built during the reign of Pharaoh Khufu and its construction lasted nearly 20 years and ranked first among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is considered a huge and very accurate engineering marvel, and it contains 2.3 million a large stone weighing from 2 tons to 15 tons.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon:
They are the royal gardens of King Nebuchadnezzar II and they were built in the city of Babylon in Iraq. One of the accounts attributed to the Greek historian Herodotus indicates that the Babylon gardens were surrounded by external walls, reaching a length of 90 km, a thickness of approximately 24 m and a height of 97.5 m, which contained many places inside. Worship, castles, statues made of pure gold, and some consideration of the authenticity of the story of Herodotus and others, but it generally refers to the greatness of the building and the splendour of the construction that its visitor felt, and these gardens have become a memory of history; This is as a result of the earthquake that struck it in the second century BC.
The statue of Zeus:
It was built as a tribute to the god Zeus by the Greek sculptor Phidias in the year 432 BC in the Greek city of Olympia. It was carved in a Greek temple to a height of about 12 meters on a large wooden base. With all forms of metal, and in his right hand a small statue of the Greek goddess of victory that bears the name Nike, and the throne he sits on is made of a mixture of precious stones, gold, and ebony wood.
Temple of Artemis:
It dates back to the sixth century BC, specifically in the Hellenistic era, and it was established in the city of Ephesus or Ephesus, which is located in Turkey now. However, the British Museum of London contains in its exhibitions some of the remains of this edifice, and the Artemis temple was completely made of marble and contained a lot of the colossal columns, as well as those surrounding it, which numbered 36, and was rebuilt many times, the first of which was in the second century BC.
Mausoleum of Mausolus:
It was built shortly after the year 367 AD, and some believe that its construction dates back to Mausolus, ruler of the Karia region and founder of the city of Halicarnassus (which is located in present-day Turkey), and he was buried in it after his death as a reward for his establishment of this city. , Namely: the huge hall that contains the tomb room, and a group of up to 36 columns, and the pyramid, which includes 24 steps, and the total height of this mausoleum has reached approximately 43 m, and it has been decorated with many different inscriptions that carry many symbolic meanings it denotes hunting, battles, and sacrifices.
Statue of Rhodes:
The Colossus of Rhodes is the tallest and largest statue during the Hellenistic period, and it was built on the Greek island of Rhodes, which was considered to be of commercial and economic importance. The story of building this statue began when Antigonius of Macedon sent forces to punish Rhodes for its alliance with Baltimus I, King of Egypt, to continue the war between the two parties after That was for a whole year, and after the expiration of this year Baltimus sent relief to Rhodes to defeat the 40,000 soldiers of Antigonius, leaving behind their equipment and weapons, so the people of Rhodes sold this huge equipment to be able to create a huge statue to thank their gods for the victory (as they believed), and it was done. The creation of the Rhodes statue of the sun god Helios, and this edifice remained standing until its collapse by an earthquake that led to its shattering.
Lighthouse of Alexandria:
The lighthouse of Alexandria is located on the island of Pharos located in the governorate of Alexandria in Egypt, Baltimus the first had the idea of building it, but he died before building it, so his son began construction work that lasted for an estimated period of 33 years, and after the completion of the construction work, it reached a height of 91.44 m, to be One of the greatest and longest building edifices ever built by man, this lighthouse was lit daily by lighting a fire at its top, and it was completely destroyed by many earthquakes.
Secondly, the Seven Modern Wonders of the World:
The new Seven Wonders of the World was announced in 2007 after more than a hundred million people voted for it, and they are:
It is one of the most prominent features of the Mayan civilization that was established on the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, and its building style combined the Maya arts and construction arts in Mexico; This city, whose history spanned nearly a thousand years, has witnessed the succession of many different civilizations, making it a centre for regional trade and urban development, and this city contains a football stadium 70 meters wide and 168 meters long, and has witnessed many matches with the rubber ball.
Statue of Christ the Redeemer:
It is located in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro and the idea of building it is the priest Pedro Maria Boss in the fifties of the nineteenth century. In the year 1893 AD, the statue of Christ the Redeemer was established on top of Corcovado Mountain, which has a height of approximately 700 meters. It is worth noting that the height of the statue is approximately 30 meters without its base, while it reaches 38 meters if the base is calculated.
It is the largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire for nearly two thousand years, with a length of 190 m and a width of 155 m, and contains three floors with entrances and arcades that are curved in shape and decorated in the classical Corinthian architecture system, and the Colosseum is oval-shaped made of stone and concrete, and it is one of the most famous historical monuments In the Italian capital, Rome; As it is visited by nearly four million people annually, and the Colosseum amphitheatre accommodates nearly fifty thousand people, and contains a square on which many entertainment, sports and cultural events have taken place, and the outer walls were exposed to some cracks as a result of a strong earthquake, and in 2011 AD maintenance and restoration work took place. For this runway in order to save its walls from wear.
The Great Wall of China:
The Great Wall of China extends over a distance of 8,851 km, and it was formed as a result of connecting many separate walls that were built to protect the Chinese state from the attacks it was facing from the northern side, by the Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang in the year 200 BC. The borders of the northern side were built the first and oldest of these walls in the period between 700 to 300 BC, and these walls were fortified by converting its walls, which were built of soil and rocks, into solid stone walls, and after the Manchu invasion of China in 1644 AD, the weak parts fell into The Great Wall of China, and recently restoration has been carried out by rebuilding some of its collapsed parts.
Machu Picchu City:
It is located between the Andes mountain ranges in the province of Cusco in Peru at an altitude of 2,430 meters above sea level, and covers an area of approximately 323.74 km2, the walls of this city and its terraces and stairs are mixed with nature, and its design, construction, and advanced irrigation systems testify to the ingenuity of the Inca people in agriculture and architecture Its construction dates back to the fifteenth century, and it is worth noting that the entire city was built of large-sized granite stones stacked on top of each other without any materials linking them.
The city of Petra is located in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in a valley descending between the sandy mountains, where its strategic location formed a meeting point between the Arabian Peninsula from the south, and the Levant from the north. Petra was the capital of the Nabataeans, carved from pink rocks. This city is distinguished by its charm and its ancient cultural heritage. And the unique architecture, in addition to that, Petra contains many monuments, including: the Siq and the Treasury.
The Taj Mahal:
The Taj Mahal is located in the city of Agra in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and it is one of the places that symbolize eternal love. The Taj Mahal was built to express the intensity of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan’s love towards his wife, the Persian Princess Mumtaz Mahal, who was called by the name Arjomand Banu Begum before marriage. It was built entirely of white marble, carved walls, and the presence of four minarets, in addition to the swimming pool that reflects a picture of it beautifully, and it is said that 20,000 sculptors, masons and artists contributed to its construction.
Third, the Seven Natural Wonders of the World:
These areas were agreed upon as natural wonders in 1997:
The Great Cove:
It is located in the state of Arizona, USA, and it has a vast natural area, and it was formed as a result of the erosion of the edges of the rocks of the Colorado Plateau by the Colorado River, to show a successive group of layers of different rocks that succeeded through the years, and as a result of the height of the great canyon and its distinctive climate, it is a suitable place for many lovers. Nature and tranquillity, as it is considered the sacred home of many American Indian peoples.
The Baricutin volcano is one of the most recent volcanoes on the surface of the Earth, it is located in the western-central part of Mexico in the western state of Michoacán, to the northern side of the summit of Tansitaro, and the Baricutin volcano is 32 km from the Uruapan region on the western and north-western sides, and its activity began on February 20 From 1943 AD in an open field; As fire, ash, and lava emanated from it, causing heavy losses represented by the burial of two villages and hundreds of houses, and a year after the eruption of this volcano, its conical summit rose by 450 m to form a high cone with a total height of 2,280 m above sea level, and in 1952 AD the volcano became It is idle after it reached a height of 2,808 meters, and it is worth noting that the partially buried church of San Juan Parangaricutero, located on the edge of the village of Baricutin, is an attractive tourist attraction in this region.
The so-called Aurora phenomenon is a mixture of attractive colours in the sky that captivate the viewer at the poles of the northern and southern hemisphere, and this phenomenon occurs as a result of the collision of gaseous particles between the Earth’s atmosphere and the charged particles emanating from the atmosphere surrounding the sun, resulting in coloured lights from these collisions Picturesque colours differ according to the type of gases colliding with each other, and among the most obvious colours: pink and pale green, in addition to shades of other colours such as: red, yellow, green, blue, and violet, which are in many shapes such as spots, or scattered clouds, or The arches reach a height of between 80 km to 640 km above the surface of the earth, which makes the sky glowing naturally and beautifully.
It is located in the Zambezi River, which is the largest river in South Africa, with a width of 1,700 m, and a height of 108 m, which makes it the largest waterfalls in the world, and these waterfalls divide the Zambezi River into two parts, one of which is the low-slope and wide river known as the Upper Zambezi River. The second is the steep Batuka Strait, which is 100 km long.
Port of Rio de Janeiro
There is the port of Rio de Janeiro or the River January, as it was called in Portuguese or Guanabara Bay in Brazil, and it is the largest bay in the world, and the reason for its origin is due to the erosion that occurred in the Atlantic Ocean due to erosion, and the port of Rio de Janeiro is characterized by the compact granite mountains that surround it , Such as the well-known Mount Pau de Acocar, which has a height of 395 meters, and the Corcovado Mountain, which has a height of 704 meters, in addition to the Tijuca Forest and the Pico da Tijuca summit, which has a height of 1,021 meters, and the Guanabara Bay area contains many picturesque islands, such as Snakes Island and Governor Island.
Great Barrier Reef
It is located in Australia on the opposite side of the Queensland coast, and it is the largest coral reef system in the world, and even the largest area for the diversity of living creatures in this great planet with an area so vast that it can be distinguished when seen from space, with an area of about 344,400 km2, and it is distinguished by its colour The turquoise with which its waters are coloured, and the diversity of its environments and differences, as it contains 600 tropical islands, and more than 900 different islands, such as White Sunday Island, Lizard Island, and Heron Island, in addition to its glittering coral reefs of different types, as it contains 3000 systems of Individual coral reefs, 760 marginal coral reefs near the coast, and nearly 300 hard coral reefs, and as a result of this wonderful diversity, a fertile environment has been formed to become home to many marine organisms such as plants and animals, especially sea turtles and fish that live among the coral reefs, in addition to 134 different species of sharks and stingrays, and huge amounts of different seaweeds.
It is located between Tibet and Nepal, and it is the highest mountain on the surface of the earth within the Himalayas, with a height of approximately 8.8 km, and the formation of Mount Everest dates back to nearly 60 million years, as a result of the movement of the Earth’s plates, and Mount Everest was named after the British geographer George Everest, Mount Everest is from natural challenges that attract climbing enthusiasts, despite the difficulty of climbing due to the difficult factors that surround it, such as strong winds, lack of oxygen at high altitudes, and avalanches.