Study Volcanic Activity and Predict Eruptions
Volcanic activity can be simply the emission of gases or non-explosive lava. It can be violent explosions that produce sequences of earthquakes. The type of eruption by volcanic activity predicts the type of lava flow, volcanic material, and duration of the volcanoes. Actually, the volcanic starts when the near surface of the earth exerts energy or pressure and it can be sudden or continuous.
However, the volcanic eruption can cause the flow of any type of materials like lava, hot magma, gases, and other explosive materials. So, we can say that volcanic activity can take place without destruction and serious damages.
Phases of Volcanic Activity
If you want to understand the initiation and process of volcanic activity, you must understand the phases. We can count the whole process of volcanic activity into three major phases.
Eruptive Pulse Phase: We can count it as the non explosive phase without the emission of explosive material or solid lava. It can last for a few seconds to minutes. It does not cause any serious damage.
Eruptive Phase: It is the phase that consists of the many pulses of the eruptive pulse phase. So, it lasts for hours to days. In this condition, the gradual pulses can produce explosions and lava flow.
Eruption Phase: It is the longest phase of volcanic activity. It contains many eruption phases and lasts for months to years. So, it is the most dangerous condition that causes severe damages for a long period. For example, the eruption phase of Mexico lasted for nine years.
How to predict the eruption?
We should look back on the history of the eruption to predict the eruption. So, first of all, we should notice when was the last eruption happened? Then calculate the time span between the last eruption and all the eruptions. It will be a good step to understand how long it takes to do eruption?
We will call the volcano active if it will show the signs of erupting. A dormant volcano will be the one that has erupted. The extinct volcano is commonly known as the dead volcano. It means that it will never erupt. However, the active and dormant volcanos are mostly monitored at the places which are populated. It essential to monitor, because the sudden eruption will cause the damages and put all the people to death. A drop of magma can cause a severe burn to the skin.
Eruption not only bounded to magma releases, it also brings the sequences of earthquakes. The moving magma causes the ground to shake. So, before any eruption, the sequences and sizes of earthquakes automatically increase. Scientists notice these sudden changes with the help of seismographs and then notice the length and severity of each sequence produced by the moving magma. The slope is measured and it gives the final time of the eruption.
Apart from this, scientists measure the concentration of gases at the place of eruption danger. Magma is thicker and has a high density. It takes more time to reach the surface level of the earth as compared to gases. Eruption gases are able to reach ground level first. Scientists mainly measure the concentration of Hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and water vapors. The exact amount of these gases help to predict the eruption.
Use of latest technologies to predict eruption
Nowadays, technology is taking control of everything. The same is the case in the prediction of eruption where satellites are predicting. Satellites predict the deformation, temperature, and other factors of the eruption spot. They give the exact result to scientists. So, they become able to evacuate a place before it is too late. Due to this reason, scientists are trying to use the methods that can give them the exact report about the eruption. Because the false notice can make people displease and they will not believe them for the next time. However, there is a lot of more research pending on this issue.