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The difference between DNA and RNA

The difference between DNA and RNA

DNA which is also called deoxyribonucleic acid is the genomic material inside the cells that does contain the genetic information that is used in the development and functioning of all the known livings.

DNA, RNA and proteins all together could be one of the three major macromolecules that important and essential for life, the most of the DNA can be found in the nucleus and a small amount can be found in mitochondria and this can be called mitochondrial DNA, it is also organized into structures that is named chromosomes.

Genome is made up from the from the complete set of chromosomes, human genome has about three billion base pairs of DNA and these pairs are arranged into 46 chromosomes, genes is the information held in the sequence pieces of DNA.

DNA consists of nucleotides which are two long polymers of simple units it does also consist of backbones which are made of sugars and phosphate groups that are joined by ester bonds, these strands do run against each other in other word they are anti-parallel.

Each sugar is attached by nucleobases which is one of the four types of molecules and the sequence of these bases does comprise the genetic code which does specify the sequence of the amino acids along with proteins.

Five prime and three prime ends are the ends of DNA strands, the five prime end has a phosphate group while the three prime end has a terminal hydroxyl group, one of the main structural differences between DNA and RNA is the sugar as there are two deoxyribose in DNA and two ribose in RNA.

Bases are been classified into two types which are; the purines (A and G) and the pyrimidines (C, T, U,), urical is found in RNA but not found in DNA, there is a general role in biology which is “ DNA makes RNA makes protein” and protein is never translated back to RNA or DNA and that does also show that DNA is never translated to protein.

The process by which DNA does achieve its control of the life’s cell is called gene expression, the amino acid sequence of each protein does determine its properties, the directed protein synthesis does follow two main steps which are; gene transcription and transcript translation.

The transcription is the process the genetic information in DNA is been used to produce a complementary RNA strand as the DNA base sequence is first copied into RNA molecule which is called pre messenger RNA by messenger RNA polymerase (mRNA) and this pre messenger RNA has a base sequence which is identical to the DNA coding strand.

Even every somatic cell in our body does contain the same genome but the activation and silencing of specific genes in cell-type-specific manner is important, in addition the cell must do silence expression of genes specific to other types to be ensure the genomic stability, and this type must be maintained through the life of each single cell in normal development.

Heritable which are epigenetic modifications do reversible changes that do influence the expression of certain genes but without any alteration in the sequence of the primary DNA are ideal for regulating these events, it does become increasingly known that DNA methylation does not work alone but does occur in the context of other epigenetic modifications as the histone modifications.

RNA is also another macromolecule that is necessary for all livings and it is also made up of nucleotides, RNAs are now understood to be among cells’ key regulatory players in where they do catalyze the biological reactions, also the chemical structure of RNA is close similar to DNA but there are two differences that do distinguish DNA from RNA which are; RNA does contain the sugar ribose while DNA does contain different sugar deoxyribose also RNA has nucleobase uracil while DNA does contain thymine, and unlike DNA most of RNA molecules are single-stranded and they can adopt a complex three-dimensional structures.

RNA interference can be defined as the process that does moderate gene expression in a sequence dependent manner, the RNAi pathway is been found in all higher eukaryotes and recently it was found in the building yield, viruses also shown to be RNAi-aware in that they do use their natural host’s RNAi pathway forward to their benefits.

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